Google Play Store gives ‘star-stuck’ app ratings a nudge

Changes are afoot for the Google Play Store that should make the app repository a more informative place for both regular people and developers. Google debuted new behaviors for various aspects of the Play Store at its Google I/O developer conference this week.

Here’s what’s on deck and what it means for you.

A star is reborn

App ratings are a vital metric that Android users rely on day in and day out to inform their downloading decisions. Does the app score three stars? Four? What’s your threshold, particularly if the app costs real money?

An issue faced by users and developers alike is that the current star ratings for apps are cumulative. That means if the version 1.0 build of any given app was garbage and scored one million one-star votes, those votes will still impact the app’s overall score years later — even after the app reaches version 20.0 and is flawless. This is about to change.

Google says beginning later this year, app ratings will be weighted to reflect the most current version of the app. Developers can see the new rating via the Google Play Console starting immediately, though end users won’t see the new system until August.

Suggested replies

Any avid Android user has likely taken advantage of suggested replies in Gmail or Android Messages. “You bet!” Thanks!” “I’ll call you later.” Now, developers will be able to send generic responses directly to app reviewers. But don’t get offended.

Rather than offer developers an automated and impersonal way out of interacting with users, the idea is to push developers to respond at all. Google says developers will see three suggested replies to any given bit of user feedback. These replies will be created automatically based on the content of the review. Developers can choose to send one as-is, augment one, or write their own.

This tool is available in English to start with, and other languages will be added in subsequent versions. Google claims reviewers who receive feedback from developers are apt to improve their rating by an average of 0.7 stars.

Fine-tuned landings

Developers’ Google Play Store listings are their home, their castle. They are the central spot where developers can entice Play Store users to download their app. The message matters, and that’s why Google is giving developers more control over this vital space.

Google says app writers will soon be able to create custom listings for apps based on install date or status of the viewer. For example, developers can send surfers to alternate versions of the storefront depending on whether or not they’ve installed the app. These alternate storefronts can offer customized marketing messages tailored to score downloads or re-downloads.

Updates get pushy

Developers and users alike can already take advantage of automatic app updates. The Play Store will signal phones when new app versions are available, and then download them in the background. This is effective, but not effective enough, according to developer feedback.

The new in-app updates API makes it possible for applications to update mid-use. This API has been in testing for several months and Google says developers have created smooth processes for upgrading apps while in use. This improves the overall acceptance rate of app updates by a respectable percentage. The API has reached general availability, so expect to see this in the real world before too long.

In-App Updates for Google Play Store

Stats for nerds

Developers gain some hardcore nerdy stuff to get excited about, starting with the “bundle” of joy.

A photo of Google Play's version number

Android App Bundles are party to some enhancements. Bundles are a way of delivering apps in smaller packages. Now developers can set more parameters for controlling when and how the bundles are sent to phones over the air.

Sharing apps internally is now more seamless, according to Google. Google smoothed over the process of testing new builds to trusted reviewers without the messy overhead of version codes, signing keys, or other validations.

Last, the Google Play Console Data now offers more information at a glance, allowing developers to better ascertain the stats of their apps.

While some of these changes are developer-facing only, others will soon become part of the everyday Google Play Store experience.

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Learn C# for Android part 2 – Classes and loops (also: rabbits!)

Learn C# Coding

In part one of this Android tutorial series on learning C#, we looked at the absolute basics of C# programming. We covered methods (groups of code that perform specific tasks), some basic syntax (such as the need for semi colons), variables (containers that store data), and “if statements” for flow control (branching code that’s dependent on the values of variables). We also saw how to pass variables like strings as arguments between methods.

You should go back and take a look at that if you haven’t read it already.

At this point, you should be able to make some basic console apps, like quizzes, apps that store data, or calculators.

Learn C# for Android

In part two, we’re going to get a little more ambitious, covering some more basics — like loops — and exploring how to create and interact with classes. That means we’ll be able to start taking a stab at Android development and see how to bridge that gap. Continue reading if you want to truly learn C#!

Understanding classes and object oriented programming

Briefly in part one, we explained the basics of Object Oriented Programming, which revolves around languages using “classes” to describe “objects.” An object is a piece of data, which can represent many things. It could be a literal object in a game world like a spring, or it could be something more abstract, like a manager that handles the player’s score.

A single class can create multiple objects. So you might write one “enemy” class, but be able to generate an entire level full of bad guys. This is one of the big benefits of using object oriented programming. Otherwise, the only way to handle the behavior of a multitude of enemies would be to use lots of individual methods, each one containing instructions for how the bad guy should behave in different circumstances.

C# coding programming

If this is still a bit tricky to get your head around, all you really need to know is that objects have properties and behaviors. This is just like real objects. For instance, a rabbit has properties like size, color, and name; and it has behaviors, like jumping, sitting, and eating. Essentially, properties are variables and behaviors are methods.

The program we built in the last lesson is an example of a class too. The “object” we’re describing here is some kind of password control system. The property it has is the string UserName, and the behavior it has is NewMethod (checking the name of the user and greeting them).

Programming Learn C#

If that’s still a bit confusing, the only way to get our heads around is create a new class or two ourselves!

Creating a new class

If you’re going to learn C#, you need to know how to make new classes. Fortunately, this is very easy. Just click the Project menu item and then select “+Add Class.”

C# add class

Choose “C#” and call it “Rabbit.” We’re going to use this class to create conceptual rabbits. You’ll see what I mean in a moment.

If you check in your Solution Explorer on the right, you’ll see that a new file called Rabbit.cs has been created right beneath Program.cs. Well done — that’s one of the most crucial things to know if you want to learn C# for Android!

The new Rabbit.cs file has some of that same “boilerplate” code as before. It still belongs to the same namespace, and it has a class with the same name as the file.

namespace ConsoleApp2 {     class Rabbit     {     } }

Now we’re going to give our rabbit some properties with what we call a “constructor.”

Rabbit class C#

A constructor is a method in a class that initializes the object, allowing us to define its properties when we first create it. In this case, here’s what we’re going to say:

namespace ConsoleApp2 {     class Rabbit     {         public string RabbitName;         public string RabbitColor;         public int RabbitAge;         public int RabbitWeight;         public Rabbit(String name, String color, int age, int weight)         {             RabbitName = name;             RabbitColor = color;             RabbitAge = age;             RabbitWeight = weight;         }     } }

This allows us to create a new rabbit from a different class, and define its properties as we do:

Rabbit Rabbit1 = new Rabbit(“Jeff”, “brown”, 1, 1);

Now I realize in retrospect weight should probably have been a float or a double to allow for decimals, but you get the idea. We’re going to round our rabbit to the nearest whole number.

You’ll see as you write your rabbit out, you’ll be prompted to pass the correct arguments. In this way, your class has become a part of the code almost.

Believe it or not, this code has created a rabbit! You can’t see your rabbit because we don’t have any graphics, but it is there.

And to prove it, you can now use this line:


This will then tell you the name of the rabbit you just created!

Learn C# Rabbit Weight

We can likewise increase the weight of our Rabbit, like so:

Rabbit1.RabbitWeight++; Console.WriteLine(Rabbit1.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit1.RabbitWeight + "kg");

Note here that adding “++” on the end of something will incrementally increase its value by one (You could also write “RabbitWeight = RabbitWeight + 1”).

Because our class can make as many rabbits as we like, we can create lots of different rabbits, each with their own properties.

Adding behaviors

We might then also choose to give our rabbit some kind of behavior. In this case, let’s let them eat.

C# objects classes learn

To do this, we would create a public method called “Eat,” and this would make an eating sound, while also incrementally increasing the weight of the rabbit:

public void Eat()         {             Console.WriteLine(RabbitName + ": Nibble nibble!");             RabbitWeight++;         }

Remember,”public” means accessible from outside the class, and “void” means the method doesn’t return any data.

Then, from inside Program.cs, we will be able to call this method and this will make the rabbit of our choice eat and get bigger:

Console.WriteLine(Rabbit1.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit1.RabbitWeight + "kg"); Rabbit1.Eat(); Rabbit1.Eat(); Rabbit1.Eat(); Console.WriteLine(Rabbit1.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit1.RabbitWeight + "kg");

That will cause Jeff to eat three times, then we’ll hear it and be able to see he has gotten bigger! If we had another rabbit on the scene, they could eat as well!

Console.WriteLine(Rabbit1.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit1.RabbitWeight + "kg"); Console.WriteLine(Rabbit2.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit2.RabbitWeight + "kg"); Rabbit1.Eat(); Rabbit1.Eat(); Rabbit2.Eat(); Rabbit2.Eat(); Rabbit1.Eat(); Console.WriteLine(Rabbit1.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit1.RabbitWeight + "kg"); Console.WriteLine(Rabbit2.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit2.RabbitWeight + "kg");

At it like rabbits

This isn’t a particularly elegant way to handle lots of objects, as we need to write out the commands for each rabbit manually and can’t dynamically increase the number of rabbits as far as we want. We don’t just want to learn C# — we want to learn how to write clean C# code!

Objects collections learn C#

This is why we might use a list. A list is a collection; variable itself that basically contains references to other variables. In this case, we might make a list of Rabbits, and the good news is that this is very easy to understand:

List<Rabbit> RabbitList = new List<Rabbit>(); RabbitList.Add(new Rabbit("Jeff", "brown", 1, 1)); RabbitList.Add(new Rabbit("Sam", "white", 1, 2));

This creates the new rabbit as before, but simultaneously adds the rabbit to the list. Equally, we could say this:

Rabbit Rabbit3 = new Rabbit("Jonny", "orange", 1, 1); RabbitList.Add(Rabbit3);

Either way, an object has been created and added to the list.

We can also conveniently and elegantly return information from our rabbits list this way:

foreach (var Rabbit in RabbitList)             {                 Console.WriteLine(Rabbit.RabbitName + " weighs " + Rabbit.RabbitWeight + "kg");             }

As you might be able to figure out, “foreach” means you repeat a step once for every item in the list. You can also retrieve information from your list like this:


Here “1” is the index, meaning you are referring to the information stored at position one. As it happens, that’s actually the second rabbit you added though: because lists in programming always start at 0.


In case you hadn’t yet guessed, we’re now going to use all this information to create a Fibonacci sequence. After all, If you’re learning C# for Android, you should to be able to actually do something interesting with all that theory!

learn C# development

In the Fibonacci sequence, rabbits are shut in a room and left to breed. They can reproduce after one month, at which point they are sexually mature (I cannot confirm if this is correct Rabbit biology). If each rabbit couple can produce once per month from then on, producing two offspring, here’s what the sequence looks like:


Magically, each number in the sequence is the value of the previous two numbers added together. According to science, this is kind of a big deal.

The cool thing is, we can replicate that.

First, we need to introduce a new concept: the loop. This simply repeats the same code over and over again until a condition is met. The “for” loop lets us do this by creating a variable, setting the conditions we want to meet, and then operating on it — all defined inside brackets:

for (int months = 0; months < 100; months++)             { //Do something             }

So we are creating an integer called months, and looping until it’s equal to 100. Then we increase the number of months by one.

Want to see how this can become a Fibonacci sequence? Behold:

namespace ConsoleApp2 {     class Program     {            static void Main(string[] args)         {             List<Rabbit> RabbitList = new List<Rabbit>();             RabbitList.Add(new Rabbit("Jeff", "brown", 0, 1));             RabbitList.Add(new Rabbit("Sam", "white", 0, 1));                        for (int months = 0; months < 10; months++)             {                 int firstRabbit = 0;                 int timesToReproduce = 0;                 foreach (var Rabbit in RabbitList)                 {                     Console.Write("R");                     if (Rabbit.RabbitAge > 0)                     {                         if (firstRabbit == 0)                         {                             firstRabbit = 1;                         } else                         {                             firstRabbit = 0;                             timesToReproduce++;                         }                     }                     Rabbit.RabbitAge++;                 }                 for (int i = 0; i < timesToReproduce; i++)                 {                     RabbitList.Add(new Rabbit("NewBabyRabbit", "brown", 0, 1));                     RabbitList.Add(new Rabbit("NewBabyRabbit", "brown", 0, 1));                     Console.Write("r");                     Console.Write("r");                 }                   Console.WriteLine("  --- There are " + RabbitList.Count / 2 + " pairs of rabbits!");                   Console.WriteLine("");             }             Console.WriteLine("All done!");             Console.ReadKey();         }     } } 

Okay, that was harder than I thought!

I’m not going to go through all of this, but using what you’ve already learned, you should be able to reverse engineer it.

There are definitely more elegant ways of doing this — I’m no mathematician. However, I think it’s a fairly fun exercise, and once you can do it, you’re ready for the big time.

I’d love to see any other approaches, by the way!

Where do we go from here? How to learn C# for Android

With all that knowledge under your belt, you’re ready to start on bigger things. In particular, you’re ready to take a stab at Android programming with C# in Xamarin or Unity.

Learn C# for Android

This is different because you’ll be using classes provided by Google, Microsoft, and Unity. When you write something like “RigidBody2D.velocity” what you’re doing is accessing a property from a class called RigidBody2D. This works just the same, the only difference is you can’t see RigidBody2D because you didn’t build it yourself.

With this C# under your belt, you should be ready to jump into either of these options and have a big head start when it comes to understanding what’s going on:

In an upcoming lesson, we’ll also look at how you can take a U-turn and use this to build Windows apps instead!

Build a face-detecting app with machine learning and Firebase ML Kit

With the release of technologies such as TensorFlow and CloudVision, it’s becoming easier to use machine learning (ML) in your mobile apps, but training machine learning models still requires a significant amount of time and effort.

With Firebase ML Kit, Google are aiming to make machine learning more accessible, by providing a range of pre-trained models that you can use in your iOS and Android apps.

In this article, I’ll show you how to use ML Kit to add powerful machine learning capabilities to your apps, even if you have zero machine learning knowledge, or simply don’t have the time and resources necessary to train, optimize and deploy your own ML models.

We’ll be focusing on ML Kit’s Face Detection API, which you can use to identify faces in photos, videos and live streams. By the end of this article, you’ll have built an app that can identify faces in an image, and then display information about these faces, such as whether the person is smiling, or has their eyes closed.

What is the Face Detection API?

This API is part of the cross-platform Firebase ML Kit SDK, which includes a number of APIs for common mobile use cases. Currently, you can use ML Kit to recognize text, landmarks and faces, scan barcodes, and label images, with Google planning to add more APIs in the future.

You can use the Face Detection API to identify faces in visual media, and then extract information about the position, size and orientation of each face. However, the Face Detection API really starts to get interesting, when you use it to analyze the following:

  • Landmarks. These are points of interest within a face, such as the right eye or left ear. Rather than detecting landmarks first and then using them as points of reference to detect the whole face, ML Kit detects faces and landmarks separately.
    Classification. This is where you analyze whether a particular facial characteristic is present. Currently, the Face Detection API can determine whether the right eye and left eye are open or closed, and whether the person is smiling.

You can use this API to enhance a wide range of existing features, for example you could use face detection to help users crop their profile picture, or tag friends and family in their photos. You can also use this API to design entirely new features, such as hands-free controls, which could be a novel way to interact with your mobile game, or provide the basis for accessibility services.

Just be aware that this API offers face detection and not face recognition, so it can tell you the exact coordinates of a person’s left and right ears, but not who that person is.

Connect your project to Firebase

Now we know what Face Detection is, let’s create an application that uses this API!

Start by creating a new project with the settings of your choice, and then connect this project to the Firebase servers.

You’ll find detailed instructions on how to do this, in Extracting text from images with Google’s Machine Learning SDK.

Downloading Google’s pre-trained machine learning models

By default, your app will only download the ML Kit models as and when they’re required, rather than downloading them at install-time. This delay could have a negative impact on the user experience, as there’s no guarantee the device will have a strong, reliable Internet connection the first time it requires a particular ML model.

You can instruct your application to download one or more ML models at install-time, by adding some metadata to your Manifest. While I have the Manifest open, I’m also adding the WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE and CAMERA permissions, which we’ll be using it later in this tutorial.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="" package="com.jessicathornsby.facerecog"> //Add the STORAGE and CAMERA permissions// <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE" /> <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.CAMERA" /> <application android:allowBackup="true" android:icon="@mipmap/ic_launcher" android:label="@string/app_name" android:roundIcon="@mipmap/ic_launcher_round" android:supportsRtl="true" android:theme="@style/AppTheme"> <activity android:name=".MainActivity"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> //Download the Face detection model at install-time// <meta-data android:name="" android:value="face" />

Creating the layout

Next, we need to create the following UI elements:

  • An ImageView. Initially, this will display a placeholder, but it’ll update once the user selects an image from their gallery, or takes a photo using their device’s built-in camera.
  • A TextView. Once the Face Detection API has analyzed the image, I’ll display its findings in a TextView.
  • A ScrollView. Since there’s no guarantee the image and the extracted information will fit neatly onscreen, I’m placing the TextView and ImageView inside a ScrollView.

Open activity_main.xml and add the following:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="" xmlns:tools="" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:padding="20dp" tools:context=".MainActivity"> <ScrollView android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent"> <LinearLayout android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical"> <ImageView android:id="@+id/imageView" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:adjustViewBounds="true" android:src="@drawable/ic_placeholder" /> <TextView android:id="@+id/textView" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:textAppearance="@style/TextAppearance.AppCompat.Medium" android:layout_marginTop="20dp"/> </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> </RelativeLayout>

Next, open your project’s strings.xml file, and define all the strings we’ll be using throughout this project.

<resources> <string name="app_name">FaceRecog</string> <string name="action_gallery">Gallery</string> <string name="storage_denied">This app needs to access files on your device.</string> <string name="action_camera">Camera</string> <string name="camera_denied">This app need to access the camera.</string> <string name="error">Cannot access ML Kit</string> </resources>

We also need to create a “ic_placeholder” resource:

  • Select “File > New > Image Asset” from the Android Studio toolbar.
  • Open the “Icon Type” dropdown and select “Action Bar and Tab Icons.”
  • Make sure the “Clip Art” radio button is selected.
  • Give the “Clip Art” button a click.
  • Select the image that you want to use as your placeholder; I’m using “Add to photos.”
  • Click “OK.”
  • In the “Name,” field, enter “ic_placeholder.”

  • Click “Next.” Read the information, and if you’re happy to proceed then click “Finish.”

Customize the action bar

Next, I’m going to create two action bar icons that’ll let the user choose between selecting an image from their gallery, or taking a photo using their device’s camera.

If your project doesn’t already contain a “menu” directory, then:

  • Control-click your project’s “res” directory and select “New > Android Resource Directory.”
  • Open the “Resource type” dropdown and select “menu.”
  • The “Directory name” should update to “menu” automatically, but if it doesn’t then you’ll need to rename it manually.
  • Click “OK.”

Next, create the menu resource file:

  • Control-click your project’s “menu” directory and select “New > Menu resource file.”
  • Name this file “my_menu.”
  • Click “OK.”
  • Open the “my_menu.xml” file, and add the following:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <menu xmlns:android="" xmlns:app="" xmlns:tools="" > <item android:id="@+id/action_gallery" android:orderInCategory="101" android:title="@string/action_gallery" android:icon="@drawable/ic_gallery" app:showAsAction="ifRoom"/> <item android:id="@+id/action_camera" android:orderInCategory="102" android:title="@string/action_camera" android:icon="@drawable/ic_camera" app:showAsAction="ifRoom"/> </menu>

Next, create the “ic_gallery” and “ic_camera” drawables:

  • Select “File > New > Image Asset.”
  • Set the “Icon Type” dropdown to “Action Bar and Tab Icons.”
  • Click the “Clip Art” button.
  • Choose a drawable. I’m using “image” for my “ic_gallery” icon.
  • Click “OK.”
  • To ensure this icon will be clearly visible in the action bar, open the “Theme” dropdown and select “HOLO_DARK.”
  • Name this icon “ic_gallery.”
  • “Click “Next,” followed by “Finish.”

Repeat this process to create an “ic_camera” resource; I’m using the “photo camera” drawable.

Handling permission requests and click events

I’m going to perform all the tasks that aren’t directly related to Face Detection in a separate BaseActivity class, including instantiating the menu, handling action bar click events, and requesting access to the device’s storage and camera.

  • Select “File > New > Java class” from Android Studio’s toolbar.
  • Name this class “BaseActivity.”
  • Click “OK.”
  • Open BaseActivity, and then add the following:
import; import android.os.Bundle; import android.content.DialogInterface; import android.content.Intent; import; import android.Manifest; import android.provider.MediaStore; import android.view.Menu; import android.view.MenuItem; import android.provider.Settings; import; import; import; import; import; import; import; import; import; public class BaseActivity extends AppCompatActivity { public static final int WRITE_STORAGE = 100; public static final int CAMERA = 102; public static final int SELECT_PHOTO = 103; public static final int TAKE_PHOTO = 104; public static final String ACTION_BAR_TITLE = "action_bar_title"; public File photoFile; @Override protected void onCreate(@Nullable Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); ActionBar actionBar = getSupportActionBar(); if (actionBar != null) { actionBar.setDisplayHomeAsUpEnabled(true); actionBar.setTitle(getIntent().getStringExtra(ACTION_BAR_TITLE)); } } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { getMenuInflater().inflate(, menu); return true; } @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.getItemId()) { case checkPermission(CAMERA); break; case checkPermission(WRITE_STORAGE); break; } return super.onOptionsItemSelected(item); } @Override public void onRequestPermissionsResult(int requestCode, @NonNull String[] permissions, @NonNull int[] grantResults) { super.onRequestPermissionsResult(requestCode, permissions, grantResults); switch (requestCode) { case CAMERA: if (grantResults.length > 0 && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) { launchCamera(); } else { requestPermission(this, requestCode, R.string.camera_denied); } break; case WRITE_STORAGE: if (grantResults.length > 0 && grantResults[0] == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) { selectPhoto(); } else { requestPermission(this, requestCode, R.string.storage_denied); } break; } } public static void requestPermission(final Activity activity, final int requestCode, int message) { AlertDialog.Builder alert = new AlertDialog.Builder(activity); alert.setMessage(message); alert.setPositiveButton(android.R.string.ok, new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() { @Override public void onClick(DialogInterface dialogInterface, int i) { dialogInterface.dismiss(); Intent intent = new Intent(Settings.ACTION_APPLICATION_DETAILS_SETTINGS); intent.setData(Uri.parse("package:" + activity.getPackageName())); activity.startActivityForResult(intent, requestCode); } }); alert.setNegativeButton(android.R.string.cancel, new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() { @Override public void onClick(DialogInterface dialogInterface, int i) { dialogInterface.dismiss(); } }); alert.setCancelable(false);; } public void checkPermission(int requestCode) { switch (requestCode) { case CAMERA: int hasCameraPermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this, Manifest.permission.CAMERA); if (hasCameraPermission == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) { launchCamera(); } else { ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(this, new String[]{Manifest.permission.CAMERA}, requestCode); } break; case WRITE_STORAGE: int hasWriteStoragePermission = ActivityCompat.checkSelfPermission(this, Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE); if (hasWriteStoragePermission == PackageManager.PERMISSION_GRANTED) { selectPhoto(); } else { ActivityCompat.requestPermissions(this, new String[]{Manifest.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE}, requestCode); } break; } } private void selectPhoto() { photoFile = MyHelper.createTempFile(photoFile); Intent intent = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_PICK, MediaStore.Images.Media.EXTERNAL_CONTENT_URI); startActivityForResult(intent, SELECT_PHOTO); } private void launchCamera() { photoFile = MyHelper.createTempFile(photoFile); Intent intent = new Intent(MediaStore.ACTION_IMAGE_CAPTURE); Uri photo = FileProvider.getUriForFile(this, getPackageName() + ".provider", photoFile); intent.putExtra(MediaStore.EXTRA_OUTPUT, photo); startActivityForResult(intent, TAKE_PHOTO); } }

Creating a Helper class: Resizing images

Next, create a “MyHelper” class, where we’re we’ll resize the user’s chosen image:

import; import; import android.content.Context; import android.database.Cursor; import android.os.Environment; import android.widget.ImageView; import android.provider.MediaStore; import; import static; import static; import; import; import; import; public class MyHelper { public static String getPath(Context context, Uri uri) { String path = ""; String[] projection = {MediaStore.Images.Media.DATA}; Cursor cursor = context.getContentResolver().query(uri, projection, null, null, null); int column_index; if (cursor != null) { column_index = cursor.getColumnIndexOrThrow(MediaStore.Images.Media.DATA); cursor.moveToFirst(); path = cursor.getString(column_index); cursor.close(); } return path; } public static File createTempFile(File file) { File directory = new File(Environment.getExternalStorageDirectory().getPath() + "/com.jessicathornsby.myapplication"); if (!directory.exists() || !directory.isDirectory()) { directory.mkdirs(); } if (file == null) { file = new File(directory, "orig.jpg"); } return file; } public static Bitmap resizePhoto(File imageFile, Context context, Uri uri, ImageView view) { BitmapFactory.Options newOptions = new BitmapFactory.Options(); try { decodeStream(context.getContentResolver().openInputStream(uri), null, newOptions); int photoHeight = newOptions.outHeight; int photoWidth = newOptions.outWidth; newOptions.inSampleSize = Math.min(photoWidth / view.getWidth(), photoHeight / view.getHeight()); return compressPhoto(imageFile, BitmapFactory.decodeStream(context.getContentResolver().openInputStream(uri), null, newOptions)); } catch (FileNotFoundException exception) { exception.printStackTrace(); return null; } } public static Bitmap resizePhoto(File imageFile, String path, ImageView view) { BitmapFactory.Options options = new BitmapFactory.Options(); decodeFile(path, options); int photoHeight = options.outHeight; int photoWidth = options.outWidth; options.inSampleSize = Math.min(photoWidth / view.getWidth(), photoHeight / view.getHeight()); return compressPhoto(imageFile, BitmapFactory.decodeFile(path, options)); } private static Bitmap compressPhoto(File photoFile, Bitmap bitmap) { try { FileOutputStream fOutput = new FileOutputStream(photoFile); bitmap.compress(Bitmap.CompressFormat.JPEG, 70, fOutput); fOutput.close(); } catch (IOException exception) { exception.printStackTrace(); } return bitmap; } }

Sharing files using FileProvider

I’m also going to create a FileProvider, which will allow our project to share files with other applications.

If your project doesn’t contain an “xml” directory, then:

  • Control-click your project’s “res” directory and select “New > Android Resource Directory.”
  • Open the “Resource type” dropdown and select “xml.”
  • The directory name should change to “xml” automatically, but if it doesn’t then you’ll need to change it manually.
  • Click “OK.”

Next, we need to create an XML file containing the path(s) our FileProvider will use:

  • Control-click your “XML” directory and select “New > XML resource file.”
  • Give this file the name “provider” and then click “OK.”
  • Open your new provider.xml file and add the following:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <paths> //Our app will use public external storage// <external-path name="external_files" path="."/> </paths>

You then need to register this FileProvider in your Manifest:

 <meta-data android:name="" android:value="face" /> //Add the following block// <provider android:name="" //Android uses “authorities” to distinguish between providers// android:authorities="${applicationId}.provider" //If your provider doesn’t need to be public, then you should always set this to “false”// android:exported="false" android:grantUriPermissions="true"> <meta-data android:name="" android:resource="@xml/provider"/> </provider> </application> </manifest>

Configuring the face detector

The easiest way to perform face detection, is to use the detector’s default settings. However, for the best possible results you should customize the detector so it only provides the information your app needs, as this can often accelerate the face detection process.

To edit the face detector’s default settings, you’ll need to create a FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions instance:

 FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions options = new FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.Builder()

You can then make all of the following changes to the detector’s default settings:

Fast or accurate?

To provide the best possible user experience, you need to strike a balance between speed and accuracy.

There’s several ways that you can tweak this balance, but one of the most important steps is configuring the detector to favour either speed or accuracy. In our app, I’ll be using fast mode, where the face detector uses optimizations and shortcuts that make face detection faster, but can have a negative impact on the API’s accuracy.

.setModeType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.ACCURATE_MODE) .setModeType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.FAST_MODE)

If you don’t specify a mode, Face Detection will use FAST_MODE by default.

Classifications: Is the person smiling?

You can classify detected faces into categories, such as “left eye open” or “smiling.” I’ll be using classifications to determine whether a person has their eyes open, and whether they’re smiling.

.setClassificationType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.ALL_CLASSIFICATIONS) .setClassificationType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.NO_CLASSIFICATIONS)


Landmark detection

Since face detection and landmark detection occur independently, you can toggle landmark detection on and off.

.setLandmarkType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.ALL_LANDMARKS) .setLandmarkType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.NO_LANDMARKS)

If you want to perform facial classification, then you’ll need to explicitly enable landmark detection, so we’ll be using ALL_LANDMARKS in our app.

Detect contours

The Face Detection API can also identify facial contours, providing you with an accurate map of the detected face, which can be invaluable for creating augmented reality apps, such as applications that add objects, creatures or Snapchat-style filters to the user’s camera feed.

.setContourMode(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.ALL_CONTOURS) .setContourMode(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.NO_CONTOURS)

If you don’t specify a contour mode, then Face Detection will use NO_CONTOURS by default.

Minimum face size

This is the minimum size of faces that the API should identify, expressed as a proportion of the width of the detected face, relative to the width of the image. For example, if you specified a value of 0.1 then your app won’t detect any faces that are smaller than roughly 10% the width of the image.

Your app’s setMinFaceSize will impact that all-important speed/accuracy balance. Decrease the value and the API will detect more faces but may take longer to complete face detection operations; increase the value and operations will be completed more quickly, but your app may fail to identify smaller faces.


If you don’t specify a value, then your app will use 0.1f.

Face tracking

Face tracking assigns an ID to a face, so it can be tracked across consecutive images or video frames. While this may sound like face recognition, the API is still unaware of the person’s identity, so technically it’s still classified as face detection.

It’s recommended that you disable tracking if your app handles unrelated or non-consecutive images.

.setTrackingEnabled(true) .setTrackingEnabled(false)

This defaults to “false.”

Run the face detector

Once you’ve configured the face detector, you need to convert the image into a format that the detector can understand.

ML Kit can only process images when they’re in the FirebaseVisionImage format. Since we’re working with Bitmaps, we perform this conversion by calling the fromBitmap() utility method, and then passing the bitmap:

 FirebaseVisionImage image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromBitmap(myBitmap);

Next, we need to create an instance of FirebaseVisionFaceDetector, which is a detector class that locates any instances of FirebaseVisionFace within the supplied image.

 FirebaseVisionFaceDetector detector = FirebaseVision.getInstance().getVisionFaceDetector(options);

We can then check the FirebaseVisionImage object for faces, by passing it to the detectInImage method, and implementing the following callbacks:

  • onSuccess. If one or more faces are detected, then a List<FirebaseVisionFace> instance will be passed to the OnSuccessListener. Each FirebaseVisionFace object represents a face that was detected in the image.
  • onFailure. The addOnFailureListener is where we’ll handle any errors.

This gives us the following:

 detector.detectInImage(image).addOnSuccessListener(new OnSuccessListener<List<FirebaseVisionFace>>() { @Override //Task completed successfully// public void onSuccess(List<FirebaseVisionFace> faces) { //Do something// } }).addOnFailureListener(new OnFailureListener() { @Override //Task failed with an exception// public void onFailure (@NonNull Exception exception) { //Do something// } }); }

Analyzing FirebaseVisionFace objects

I’m using classification to detect whether someone has their eyes open, and whether they’re smiling. Classification is expressed as a probability value between 0.0 and 1.0, so if the API returns a 0.7 certainty for the “smiling” classification, then it’s highly likely the person in the photo is smiling.

For each classification, you’ll need to set a minimum threshold that your app will accept. In the following snippet, I’m retrieving the smile probability value:

 for (FirebaseVisionFace face : faces) { if (face.getSmilingProbability() != FirebaseVisionFace.UNCOMPUTED_PROBABILITY) { smilingProbability = face.getSmilingProbability(); }

Once you have this value, you need to check that it meets your app’s threshold:

 result.append("Smile: "); if (smilingProbability > 0.5) { result.append("Yes \nProbability: " + smilingProbability); } else { result.append("No"); }

I’ll repeat this process for the left and right eye classifications.

Here’s my completed MainActivity:

import; import android.os.Bundle; import android.widget.ImageView; import android.content.Intent; import android.widget.TextView; import; import; import android.widget.Toast; import; import; import; import; import; import; import; import java.util.List; public class MainActivity extends BaseActivity { private ImageView myImageView; private TextView myTextView; private Bitmap myBitmap; @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_main); myTextView = findViewById(; myImageView = findViewById(; } @Override protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) { super.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data); if (resultCode == RESULT_OK) { switch (requestCode) { case WRITE_STORAGE: checkPermission(requestCode); case CAMERA: checkPermission(requestCode); break; case SELECT_PHOTO: Uri dataUri = data.getData(); String path = MyHelper.getPath(this, dataUri); if (path == null) { myBitmap = MyHelper.resizePhoto(photoFile, this, dataUri, myImageView); } else { myBitmap = MyHelper.resizePhoto(photoFile, path, myImageView); } if (myBitmap != null) { myTextView.setText(null); myImageView.setImageBitmap(myBitmap); runFaceDetector(myBitmap); } break; case TAKE_PHOTO: myBitmap = MyHelper.resizePhoto(photoFile, photoFile.getPath(), myImageView); if (myBitmap != null) { myTextView.setText(null); myImageView.setImageBitmap(myBitmap); runFaceDetector(myBitmap); } break; } } } private void runFaceDetector(Bitmap bitmap) { //Create a FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions object// FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions options = new FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.Builder() //Set the mode type; I’m using FAST_MODE// .setModeType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.FAST_MODE) //Run additional classifiers for characterizing facial features// .setClassificationType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.ALL_CLASSIFICATIONS) //Detect all facial landmarks// .setLandmarkType(FirebaseVisionFaceDetectorOptions.ALL_LANDMARKS) //Set the smallest desired face size// .setMinFaceSize(0.1f) //Disable face tracking// .setTrackingEnabled(false) .build(); FirebaseVisionImage image = FirebaseVisionImage.fromBitmap(myBitmap); FirebaseVisionFaceDetector detector = FirebaseVision.getInstance().getVisionFaceDetector(options); detector.detectInImage(image).addOnSuccessListener(new OnSuccessListener<List<FirebaseVisionFace>>() { @Override public void onSuccess(List<FirebaseVisionFace> faces) { myTextView.setText(runFaceRecog(faces)); } }).addOnFailureListener(new OnFailureListener() { @Override public void onFailure (@NonNull Exception exception) { Toast.makeText(MainActivity.this, "Exception", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show(); } }); } private String runFaceRecog(List<FirebaseVisionFace> faces) { StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder(); float smilingProbability = 0; float rightEyeOpenProbability = 0; float leftEyeOpenProbability = 0; for (FirebaseVisionFace face : faces) { //Retrieve the probability that the face is smiling// if (face.getSmilingProbability() != //Check that the property was not un-computed// FirebaseVisionFace.UNCOMPUTED_PROBABILITY) { smilingProbability = face.getSmilingProbability(); } //Retrieve the probability that the right eye is open// if (face.getRightEyeOpenProbability() != FirebaseVisionFace.UNCOMPUTED_PROBABILITY) { rightEyeOpenProbability = face.getRightEyeOpenProbability (); } //Retrieve the probability that the left eye is open// if (face.getLeftEyeOpenProbability() != FirebaseVisionFace.UNCOMPUTED_PROBABILITY) { leftEyeOpenProbability = face.getLeftEyeOpenProbability(); } //Print “Smile:” to the TextView// result.append("Smile: "); //If the probability is 0.5 or higher...// if (smilingProbability > 0.5) { //...print the following// result.append("Yes \nProbability: " + smilingProbability); //If the probability is 0.4 or lower...// } else { //...print the following// result.append("No"); } result.append("\n\nRight eye: "); //Check whether the right eye is open and print the results// if (rightEyeOpenProbability > 0.5) { result.append("Open \nProbability: " + rightEyeOpenProbability); } else { result.append("Close"); } result.append("\n\nLeft eye: "); //Check whether the left eye is open and print the results// if (leftEyeOpenProbability > 0.5) { result.append("Open \nProbability: " + leftEyeOpenProbability); } else { result.append("Close"); } result.append("\n\n"); } return result.toString(); } }

Testing the project

Put your app to the test by installing it on your Android device, and then either selecting an image from your gallery, or taking a new photo.

As soon as you’ve supplied an image, the detector should run automatically and display its results.

ML Kit

You can also download the completed project from GitHub.

Wrapping up

In this article, we used ML Kit to detect faces in photographs, and then gather information about those faces, including whether the person was smiling, or had their eyes open.

Google already have more APIs planned for ML Kit, but what machine learning-themed APIs would you like to see in future releases? Let us know in the comments below!